Yee, A. T. K., K. Y. Chong, L. Neo & H. T. W. Tan, 2016). Updating the classification system for the secondary forests of Singapore. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement No. 32: 11-21 [pdf].
In this paper, the authors examine dryland secondary forests of Singapore with a defied tree canopy layer (i. e. not scrubland). They classify these secondary forests based on their land-use histories into three forest types:
- Native-dominated secondary forests – forests regrown on land cleared before the 1950s, and dominated by native tree species.
- Abandoned-land forests – forests regrown over abandoned plantations or kampungs, with mature trees largely intact.
- Waste-woodlands – forests regrown over land cleared usually after the 1960s, and dominated by exotic tree species. Species composition derived from seed source of the surroundings at the time of clearance, and succession. Reclaimed land forest (technically primary succession) is structurally similar to waste-woodlands with a species composition likely derived from the fill material.”
The authors remind us that land-use history of a single patch of secondary forest can be heterogeneous, and would require a mixed classification to best describe it.
See also, Yee, A. T. K., R. T. Corlett, S. C. Liew & H. T. W. Tan, 2011. The vegetation of Singapore—an updated map. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore, 63(1&2), 205-212 [pdf].
“Vegetation covers 56% of Singapore’s total land area: 27% is actively managed (parks, gardens, lawns, etc.) and 29% is spontaneous vegetation. Primary lowland dipterocarp forest and freshwater swamp forest cover only 0.28% and is confined to the Bukit Timah and Central Catchment Nature Reserves. The majority of the non-managed vegetation is secondary forest of various kinds, dominated by native or alien trees.”